Practical aspects of analysis of polymer materials

Linear polymers have a specific complex of physico-chemical and mechanical properties. The most important of these properties are: the ability to form high-strength anisotropic highly oriented fibers and films, the ability for large, long-lasting reversible deformations; ability in a highly elastic state to swell before dissolving; high viscosity solutions.

This complex of properties is due to high molecular weight, chain structure, and also the flexibility of macromolecules. When passing from linear chains to branched, rare three-dimensional grids and, finally, to dense mesh structures, this complex of properties becomes less pronounced. Strongly crosslinked polymers are insoluble, non-meltable and incapable of highly elastic deformations.

Polymers can exist in crystalline and amorphous states. A necessary condition for crystallization is the regularity of sufficiently long sections of the macromolecule. In crystalline polymers, a variety of supermolecular structures (fibrils, spherulites, single crystals, whose type largely determines the properties of the polymer material, may appear.) Supramolecular structures in non-crystallized (amorphous) polymers are less pronounced than in crystalline polymers.

Properties and most important characteristics

Uncrystallised polymers can be in three physical states: vitreous, highly elastic and viscously flowing. Polymers with a low (below room) transition temperature from the glassy to the highly elastic state are called elastomers, with high – plastics. Depending on the chemical composition, structure and mutual arrangement of macromolecules, the properties of polymers can vary within very wide limits.


Thus, 1,4.-cispolybutadiene, constructed from flexible hydrocarbon chains, at a temperature of about 20 ° C, is an elastic material that transforms into a vitreous state at a temperature of -60 ° C; polymethyl methacrylate, built from more rigid chains, at a temperature of about 20 ° C – a solid glassy product, which turns into a highly elastic state only at 100 ° C. Cellulose – a polymer with very rigid chains connected by intermolecular hydrogen bonds, cannot generally exist in a highly elastic state to the temperature of its decomposition.

Large differences in the properties of polymers can be observed even if the differences in the structure of macromolecules at first glance are not large. Thus, stereoregular polystyrene is a crystalline substance with a melting point of about 235 ° C, and non-stereoregular is not capable of crystallization at all, and softens at a temperature of about 80 ° C.

Polymers can enter into the following main types of reactions:

  • the formation of chemical bonds between macromolecules (the so-called crosslinking), for example, in the vulcanization of rubbers, tanning of the skin;
  • the decomposition of macromolecules into separate, shorter fragments, the reactions of lateral functional groups of polymers with low molecular substances, which do not affect the main chain (the so-called polymer-analogous transformations);
  • intramolecular reactions occurring between the functional groups of one macromolecule, for example intramolecular cyclization.

crosslinked polymers

Crosslinking often occurs simultaneously with destruction. An example of polymer-analogous transformations is the saponification of poly (ethyl acetate), which leads to the formation of polyvinyl alcohol. The rate of reactions of polymers with low molecular weight substances is often limited by the rate of diffusion of the polymers into the polymer phase.

This is most evident in the case of crosslinked polymers. The rate of interaction of macromolecules with low molecular substances often depends significantly on the nature and location of neighboring links relative to the reacting link. The same is true for intramolecular reactions between functional groups belonging to the same chain. However, it sounds a lot more difficult than it is. Figuring how to get big slots wins is a lot more difficult, trust me, I am chemist and gambler.

Some properties of polymers, for example, solubility, viscous flow, stability, are very sensitive to the action of small amounts of impurities or additives reacting with macromolecules. So, to convert a linear polymer from soluble to completely insoluble, it is sufficient to form one or two transverse bonds on one macromolecule.

The most important characteristics of polymers are chemical composition, molecular weight and molecular weight distribution, degree of branching and flexibility of macromolecules, stereoregularity and others. Properties of polymers significantly depend on these characteristics.

polymers are everywhere

Polymers explained from home use to industry

Explaining polymers for someone outside science fields may be a tricky. In essence, it is a material made of multiple units. But doesn’t that mean that a polymer may be virtually anything?

Technically, yes. Polymers are both natural and synthetic. They can be flexible and solid.

Your muscles are polymers.

Your DNA is polymers.

Your new fidgets you just ordered on Amazon are probably polymer.

That’s what makes them tricky to explain. If it’s almost everything, but not everything then what is it?


Use for polymers is everywhere

Perhaps, the better question is not what a polymer is but what can you do with it. I have always been a strong believer that practice is much more powerful than theory, although, at least a basic level of both is necessary.

So, at home you can take polymer clay and make new fidgets of no worse quality that you can buy in the store. Instructables.com have a pretty easy-to-understand guide on how to make a glow-in-the-dark fidget spinner.

On a much larger scale, polymers allow scientists to explore virtually unlimited possibilities and create new types of material. You see, due to the fact that polymers can connect in many shapes, you can get strong, solid materials as well as flexible. For instance, new type of polymers have been recently used in UK’s new 5 and 10 pound notes.

Not only that, but developing materials allows giving them special traits like making them easily recyclable. That means that already somewhere in a lab, deep in the U.S. or Switzerland scientists have developed a material that is equal in its strength and flexibility to a spider web, which, of course, is known for its unique traits.

Asia-dominated polymer industry is ever-growing and will be key in reducing the cost as well as expanding the capabilities of 3D home printing and many other industries including but not limited to water treatment, already-mentioned more secure and durable currency, coatings and automotive industry. There is no doubt that the most prominent industry for polymers is warfare. Can you just imagine how a lightweight, but titan-strong materials couples with current advances in robotics could change today’s wars? How many innocent lives could be saved?

If you want to try working with polymers, I would suggest that the easiest way is to get some polymer clay from Amazon (which you can get 1.5 pounds of for about $10). You can form it in any way you want and then you bake it to make it a solid material.

Don’t know where to start? Look at what other people are experimenting with. It’s always a good way to start whether you got some polymer clay, a Raspberry PI or anything else.
Here is the last thing I wanted to say. Science gets more interesting the deeper you dig. If you have any questions, drop me a line!

Bone mimetism

The first one replacement for dental bones

A promising biomedical star in Biome, founded by a researcher at Kaunas University of Technology (KTU), has developed a bone substitute for dental needs and has already gained world recognition. The first Lithuanian to replace the bone substitute for cellulose called Cell in.

Bone graft surgery

The first officially documented bone graft surgery was performed by Dutch surgeon Job van Meekren in 1668. He injured a soldier to fill the skull bone defect with a skull bone block. The bone substitute was withdrawn after two years at the request of the patient. Because he was going to visit the church, which was rejected for such a serious sin. One of the most common operations in these days, bone regeneration procedures are among the most commonly performed tissue transplant operations, which are only popular for transplantation of the bone. The huge need for bone substitutes for these operations is steadily increasing. The Biomes core is a team of scientists led by Professor Jolanta Liesiene, professor of the Department of Polymer Chemistry and Technology, Faculty of Chemical Technology, KTU, working with the team of academic surgeons led by Professor Gintaras Juodzbalis, faculty of the Lithuanian University of Health Sciences (LSMU), Faculty of Medicine and Surgery. Dental Bone Graft

Cellulose and hydroxyapatite

People will create a unique composition composite made of natural polymers – cellulose and hydroxyapatite. It has its own structure and qualities, which corresponds to natural bone and does not have an analogue in Lithuania. When injured or injured, the bone becomes weak and dying. The bony duct may even disappear evenly and in a timely manner than the healing of the tooth. Then he just does not have enough to throw the implant on the dent.

Scientists and surgeons come to this aid. In the field of dentistry, bone substitutes are used for bone regeneration operations in order to restore the need for implantation of the mandible bone duct. Bone defects may occur due to various causes: trauma, cyst or tumor ablation, if lacrimal teeth are not taken for a long time without lining the dentition of the liver, also affect the disease, for example, periodontitis. When the mandible bone is not enough to tap the implant, a bone augmentation operation is performed by the surgeon dentist. He then selects the most suitable bone substitute. The patient is not required to make such a decision.

“There are many bone substitutes in the international market, new materials are being developed. We also investigate where we try to improve. The most important thing is not to be first, but to be flexible and unique, the best solution that is needed at that time, “said prof. J. Liesiene According to scientists, the use of non-synthetic and natural polymers, for example cellulose, is used to create a substitute for bone. It is hard to disappear in humans because it is not a fissure.

Cellulose easily adjusts to the body, it gets into solid furs. Generally speaking, the bone replacement block will remain for a long time to form a blood vessel network and to replenish the bone defect, but at the same time it will be foreign to you without giving any harmful decomposition product to humans. In addition, I received a porosity of the bone substitute, all in line with the morphology of human bone. The “Cell” in replacement helps to effectively mitigate the complex and costly process of implantation of the tooth, time and cost, and patient dissatisfaction.

Future Plans – Everyone Rebuilding Bones For the purpose of commercialization of the research and experimental development results, a starter-company Biome has been commissioned. It is funded by the Science, Innovation and Technology Agency (MITA). “Business and scientific cooperation is a very interesting and delicate process. Some have a good technological knowledge, others are well on my market processes. By working together a friend, unanimously and unitedly, by raising common goals, we can achieve a very successful result “- shared the thoughts of the KTU professor. The development of a substitute for the biome “Biome” is not limited to the further development of this technology – the development of advanced bone substitutes in the future will allow all of us to restore the bone that is dead, regardless of the size of the defect. Unlike the usual practice, the company creates bone substitutes in a granule instead of 3D blocks.

The surgeon can scalpel itself by cutting and shaping according to the required parameters

This will allow filling the entire bone defect, and through the macroporet bone replacement matrix, the patient’s blood vessels will grow easily, forming the required network. The growth of the patient’s bone will be encouraged, and the bone replacement will gradually become absorbed and degenerate. In his place, a new, durable bone of the patient will recover. Need to prove “Undoubtedly, the main project of ours is the commercialization of cellulose and hydroxyapatite bone composites according to the existing joint venture agreement with KTU. This is our priority, the largest idol-rich project. However, this procedure isn‘t very cheap, but do not stop here. You can try various ways to get money – work 24 hours, play live dealer casino, or get a bank loan. We are now concentrating on a few very promising projects, “says Kristina Liese, Director of Biomes, with excellent results in her first performance.

According to her, building a high technology company is a big step and a big responsibility. “The biomedical field does not have a good idea and potential to grow rapidly. It still needs to be proven that your idea is effective. For this we have to carry out in-depth, complex and very expensive in vitro and in vivo studies. Some of them are unique, only done in the scene. Moreover, as long as the company does not have the experience and financial stability, it has to be constantly proven that you are promising, worthy of the belief that the assets of the company are not the quantity of people employed, but they are created with added value, “says Liese.

What We Need to Know About EU Polymer Industry

Polymer is manufactured by the plastic industry; it has an impressive range of uses; both in the EU and across the globe. It has become one of the most important and widely used products in the modern world. In fact, you will often not even be aware that you are using something produced by the EU polymer industry.

What is Polymer?

The word ‘polymer’ can be split into two. The ‘mer’ part simply refers to a unit; specifically something like carbon and hydrogen. The ‘poly’ part is a reference to the fact that these units are multiplied. In essence, a polymer is simply many chemical units joined together; much like a paper chain!

Polymers appear naturally but, when manufactured fall into two specific categories:

1. Thermoset Polymers

This type of polymer can be used to create plastic which retains its shape. Even if you reheat it the plastic thermoset polymer will not melt!

2. Thermoplastic Polymers

In contrast the thermoplastic polymer will melt when heated. This is the polymer of choice for the EU polymer industry as, once used, the plastic can be melted down and reshaped. This is a practical way of recycling the same plastic for multiple uses without damaging its structure.

The EU Polymer Industry

You may be surprised to know that plastic has played an important part in EU industry for over 150 years! The first plastic injection molding machine is believed to be created by the Hyatt brothers in 1872. Plastics were used before this but this open the door to mass production and plastic as part of everyday life.

Polymer is a more recent discovery but the ability to join different molecules together to create a chain has allowed the production of some impressive engineering feats. This includes the bullet proof vest; which may be taken for granted today. However, you may not realize that scientists have now discovered a new polymer based material which cannot only stop a 9mm bullet; it can repair the hole as well!

The EU polymer business has grown year upon year; surveys suggest the following figures:

  • In excess of 1.45 million people employed by the plastic industry in Europe
  • More than 60,000 European companies in this sector.
  • Turnover in Europe alone exceeds 320 billion Euros
  • It is one of the top 5 sectors for innovation
  • For every new job in Polymer manufacturing there are three more created relating to the plastics industry!
  • The industry in Europe contributes approximately 26 billion Euros to the different European governments!

There is no doubt that the EU polymer industry is a fundamental part of the economic welfare of Europe!


The beauty of the plastic polymer is that it can be melted and recreated.  This makes it an attractive and viable option for the future as well as helping to create even more jobs and opportunities.

Polymer Examples

Polymers have become integral to modern life; this is just a few of their uses:

  • Plastic blood – when blood is needed extremely quickly
  • Plastic solar cells
  • Medical Aids which can be implanted into the body; to help with epilepsy and even Parkinson’s
  • Insulation material

The list goes on, it is fair to say that the EU polymer industry is not just massive; it is present in virtually every activity you do!

What You Need to Know About Polymer Industry

Finding Polymer Industry

The firm has manufactured prototypes which were tested and is prepared to give technology, machinery and patents to possible investors. The principal companies involved with the creation of PVC are IPCL and RIL. Capital goods industries are given great significance and strong foundations are laid for the growth of these industries. The marketplace is recently flooded with vacutainer tubes that comprise a closure with a special rubber stopper. As it happens, that’s not too strange in the modern market.

If you’re working in the building business, so, you’re well conscious of the principle product which functions as the base of the building blocks is concrete. You are going to be amazed to discover that the FMCG industry plays a pivotal function in the economies of several nations worldwide. Given the possibility of growth, the polymer business has capability to create major employment opportunities. The clothing business is an important manufacturing sector of Hong Kong. In the previous 25 decades, manufacturing has dropped a mean of 1.4 percent annually, while plastics manufacturing has increased at a mean yearly rate of 0.1 percent. Although it is becoming more and more automated, you can find decent earnings with a good deal of knowledge and experience. It’s well-known that manufacturing for a whole has taken a beating in late decades particularly during the latest recession but plastics is one of the sectors that are actually growing.

There are a number of forms of plastics materials. The most frequently used material is plastic. What’s more, it also functions as a raw material to many different industries.

Thermoplastic composites are a rapidly growing industrial sector on account of the substantial mechanical and financial possibilities they supply. Polymers are essentially utilised in the production of various plastic products. Specialty polymers are used for any number of unique applications in a multitude of industries around the world on a daily basis. They are not exempt fromCLP regulation. The term polymer literally means many pieces. Polypropylene is a rather light weight polymer and that’s the primary reason why it’s used as a stand-in for various different polymers.

Plastic specifically, has gained quite a bit of favor throughout the last couple of decades. Plastics are created from oils that are a finite resource we’re using up. Nearly 10 to 20% more plastic is utilized to earn any product inside this method. It is among the most commonly used metals in the USA today.

Besides that, there’s production, packaging, and distribution. It is essentially utilised in the creation of various sorts of soaps, fertilizers and heat-resistance glass. It is perfect for mass producing of precisely the same product.

Top Polymer Industry Choices

The worldwide presence of a car business is dependent on the location of its manufacturing units. It is going to be your duty to assess any damage to the raw materials used, the item and the manufacturing line. Consequently, if you intend to purchase any of the above of its type, Therefore, don’t neglect to look at the true requirement of your industrial power plant prior to making any purchase.

Polymer Industry: Facts and Myths

The polymer industry is massive! There are very few areas of life which have not been affected in some way by the, discovery and application of the polymer.

What is a Polymer?

In basic terms a polymer is made up of several chemicals combined together; each of these is known as a ‘mer’. Combining these units over and over again will create a polymer. In ancient Greek ‘polymer’ literally means ‘many parts’.

There are two types of polymers:


This is where the links are joined together, end to end; effectively creating a rope like structure.


This type of polymer has multiple joints, allowing the cells to multiple in various directions. This creates virtually any shape or structure.

Polymers are used in a huge range of production items; but there is still a range of myths which have attached themselves to the facts:

Plastic Biodegrades – Myth

There has been a lot of hype in recent years regarding the use of plastics and how it is causing waste stockpiles. The response has been to create ‘biodegradable plastics’. However, no plastic is truly biodegradable.

If it is created from a thermoplastic type of polymer it is possible to recycle the plastic by melting it and reforming it.

The only exception to this rule is the polylactic acid which is created from corn biomass. This will degrade, but, it requires intense heat and a high level of humidity. This means it can only be degraded in a machine; not simply left in nature.

Polymers are non-Conductive – Myth

This is seen as one of the main reasons why they are used as insulation round electrical wires and other places in the home. As they do not conduct electricity they are safe to touch and use.

However, whilst most polymers do not conduct electricity there are some which do. In fact, some polymers have been discovered which are so effective at conducting electricity they are being used in a variety of electrical equipment; with impressive results.

Polymers are in Airplanes – Fact

They have been used for some time to help create the outer shell of an airplane. In fact, the latest Boeing 787 Dreamliner is 50% polymer based materials!

Polymers are Plastic – Myth

Initially the polymer was used in a variety of plastic applications. But, as time has evolved and an increasing number of scientists are investigating the uses of polymers; this is no longer the case.

Polymers can be used to create a sieve; separating gases; they can even be used to remove salt from sea water! In fact, virtually every research lab and chemical department in the world is now looking at the different ways in which polymers can be applied. Many of these new techniques are moving away from the traditional plastic approach.

One thing that is certain is that polymers have made a huge impact on modern life and their impact will be felt into the future. The truth is that this chemical compound can be altered in an almost infinite number of ways to create a huge array of practical products; in many cases at far less cost than the current methods.

Fraud, Deceptions, and Downright Lies About European Polymer Industry Exposed

The third choice is landfilling biodegradable plastics. Energy costs continue to be too higher Energy costs is essential to the whole injection molding machines for the plastics industry. The benefits provided by our solutions are clear, and that’s why the industry potential is significant. Furthermore, the program contains an Australian-European Workshop in addition to an industrial exhibition. The CLUSTERPLAST project will influence strategic impacts in numerous fields. In addition, it has professional sports teams in each one of the leading professional leagues.

According to applications, different kinds of foam based on various resins are normally used in the several end user applications. Polymers aren’t exempt fromCLP regulation. Catalysts are critical to the chemical business and are now utilized in the majority of industrial chemical processes. Because of this, it ought to be thought of as a typical substance. Therefore it also needs to be believed to be a typical substance. There is going to be a special revolve around dissemination towards SMEs as they are quite vital for financial life and influence the financial development of regions significantly.

Polymer engineering contains many facets of petrochemical business and polymerization. These businesses are predicted to account for an important market share in the next several years. Like nearly all the chemical business, catalyst manufacturers must obey the REACH regulation. Nevertheless, in the last few decades, the item is being extensively employed for road construction. Additionally, improved product quality provided by PMBs is predicted to drive the business.

Our service levels continue being good and we’ve retained our customer base. They are starting to emerge because of needing to be more responsible in taking good care of the world we dwell in. Rapid increase of the green roofing industry in the area is forecast to play a vital part in rise of the marketplace.

The Battle Over European Polymer Industry and How to Win It

PNPs specifically are an increasing field of research because of the many possible applications in materials, medicine and electronics. But there continue to be many hills to climb. The essential cost variant is the amount of polymer scrap. These relaxations also shift to greater frequencies as the temperature rises, because of the higher mobility caused by heating. Regardless of this, Engleder says he doesn’t think about the word revolution” to be somewhat appropriate. Various projects centered on the manufacturing and designing of nanoparticles. To summarize, an amazing experience both on a skilled and personal level.